The Telnet (telecommunications network) program is intended to provide a remote login or virtual terminal capability across a network. In other words, a user on machine A should be able to log into machine B anywhere on the network, and as far as the user is concerned, it appears that the user is seated in front of machine B. The Telnet service is provided through TCP’s port number 23. The term Telnet is used to refer to both the program and the protocol that provide these services.
Telnet was developed because at one time the only method of enabling one machine to access another machine’s resources (including hard drives and programs stored there) was to establish a link using communications devices such as modems or networks into dedicated serial ports or network adapters. This is a little more complicated than might appear at first glance because of the wide diversity of terminals and computers, each with their own control codes and terminal characteristics. When directly connected to another machine, the machine’s CPU must manage the translation of terminal codes between the two, which puts a hefty load on the CPU. With several remote logins active, a machine’s CPU can spend an inordinate amount of time managing the translations. This is especially a problem with servers that can handle many connections at once: if each had to be handled with full terminal translation, the server CPU could be bogged down just performing this function.
Telnet alleviates this problem by embedding the terminal characteristic sequences within the Telnet protocol. When two machines communicate using Telnet, Telnet itself can determine and set the communications and terminal parameters for the session during the connection phase. The Telnet protocol includes the capability not to support a service that one end of the connection cannot handle. When a connection has been established by Telnet, both ends have agreed upon a method for the two machines to exchange information, taking the load off the server CPU for a sizable amount of this work.
Usually, Telnet involves a process on the server that accepts incoming requests for a Telnet session. On UNIX systems, this process is called telnetd. On Windows NT and other PC-based operating systems, a Telnet Server program is usually involved. The client (the end doing the calling) runs a program, usually called telnet, that attempts the connection to the server. A relative of the telnet program is the program rlogin, which is common on UNIX machines.
The Telnet protocol uses the concept of a network virtual terminal, or NVT, to define both ends of a Telnet connection. Each end of the connection (each NVT) has a logical keyboard and printer. The logical printer can display characters, and the logical keyboard can generate characters. The logical printer is usually a terminal screen, whereas the logical keyboard is usually the user’s keyboard, although it could be a file or other input stream. These terms are also used in the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The image below illustrates the NVT and logical keyboard and printer.
The Telnet protocol treats the two ends of the connection as NVTs. The two programs at either end (telnet and telnetd for a UNIX server) manage the translation from virtual terminals to actual physical devices. The concept of virtual terminals enables Telnet to interconnect to any type of device, as long as a mapping is available from the virtual codes to the physical device. One advantage of this approach is that some physical devices cannot support all operations, so the virtual terminal does not have those codes. When the two ends are establishing the connection, the lack of these codes is noted, and sequences that would use them are ignored. This process is straightforward: one end asks whether the function is supported, and the other replies either positively or negatively. If it is supported, the necessary codes are sent. The list of supported functions is covered quickly in this manner.
When a connection is established through Telnet, telnetd (or whatever program is acting as the Telnet server) starts a process on the server for running applications. Every keystroke in a Telnet session must go through several different processes, as shown in the image below. Each keystroke goes through telnet, telnetd, and the applications that are used during the Telnet session. Some applications want to communicate through a terminal device, so the remote system runs a pseudo-TTY driver that acts like a terminal to the application.
To start Telnet, you must provide either the name or the IP address of the machine to be connected with. The name can be used only if the system has a means of resolving the name into its IP address, such as with the Domain Name System. A port name can usually be used to connect to a specific service, but this is used infrequently. For example, to connect to a machine with the IP address 220.127.116.11, you would enter this command: